who is called bapu
Hanikarak Bapu. , Gandhi was acquainted with Sufi Islam's Chishti Order during his stay in South Africa. At the request of Gopal Krishna Gokhale, conveyed to him by C. F. Andrews, Gandhi returned to India in 1915. The plays built support among peasants steeped in traditional Hindu culture, according to Murali, and this effort made Gandhi a folk hero in Telugu speaking villages, a sacred messiah-like figure. They saw the Caliph as their means to support Islam and the Islamic law after the defeat of Ottoman Empire in World War I. " Anti-apartheid activist and former President of South Africa, Nelson Mandela, was inspired by Gandhi. Sai blesses him.  He was not allowed to sit with European passengers in the stagecoach and told to sit on the floor near the driver, then beaten when he refused; elsewhere he was kicked into a gutter for daring to walk near a house, in another instance thrown off a train at Pietermaritzburg after refusing to leave the first-class. While his cardio records show his heart was normal, there were several instances he suffered from ailments like Malaria and was also operated on twice for piles and appendicitis.  These ideas sounded strange outside India, during his lifetime, but they readily and deeply resonated with the culture and historic values of his people. Tolstoy responded and the two continued a correspondence until Tolstoy's death in 1910 (Tolstoy's last letter was to Gandhi). Gandhi believed that any form of food inescapably harms some form of living organism, but one should seek to understand and reduce the violence in what one consumes because "there is essential unity of all life". Gandhi believed yoga offered health benefits. , Additional theories of possible influences on Gandhi have been proposed. The same year Gandhi adopted the Indian loincloth, or short dhoti and, in the winter, a shawl, both woven with yarn hand-spun on a traditional Indian spinning wheel, or charkha, as a mark of identification with India's rural poor.  A black marble platform, it bears the epigraph "Hē Rāma" (Devanagari: हे !  He clarified that the movement would not be stopped because of any individual acts of violence, saying that the "ordered anarchy" of "the present system of administration" was "worse than real anarchy. Prominent Muslim allies in his nonviolent resistance movement included Maulana Abul Kalam Azad and Abdul Ghaffar Khan. His childhood shyness and self withdrawal had continued through his teens, and he remained so when he arrived in London, but he joined a public speaking practice group and overcame this handicap to practise law. , According to Atlury Murali, Indian Congress in the 1920s appealed to Andhra Pradesh peasants by creating Telugu language plays that combined Indian mythology and legends, linked them to Gandhi's ideas, and portrayed Gandhi as a messiah, a reincarnation of ancient and medieval Indian nationalist leaders and saints. Gandhi wrote the book The Moral Basis of Vegetarianism and wrote for the London Vegetarian Society's publication. The 2010 biography, Great Soul: Mahatma Gandhi and His Struggle With India by Joseph Lelyveld contained controversial material speculating about Gandhi's sexual life. , Gandhi came from a poor family, and he had dropped out of the cheapest college he could afford. Every low and high he takes along, To Lord Krishna he lets his soul belong!  He stated that the mandate theory of majoritarian democracy should not be pushed to absurd extremes, individual freedoms should never be denied, and no person should ever be made a social or economic slave to the "resolutions of majorities". , Gandhi participated in the South African war against the Boers, on the British side in 1899. Communities across India announced plans to gather in greater numbers to protest. ", Gandhi wrote: "There must be no impatience, no barbarity, no insolence, no undue pressure. Based on that book, he considered Buddhism to be a reform movement and the Buddha to be a Hindu. It was the satyagraha formulation and step, states Dennis Dalton, that deeply resonated with beliefs and culture of his people, embedded him into the popular consciousness, transforming him quickly into Mahatma.  His mother was not comfortable about Gandhi leaving his wife and family, and going so far from home. William Borman states that the key to his satyagraha is rooted in the Hindu Upanishadic texts. , Beyond his religious beliefs, Gandhi stated another motivation for his experiments with diet. However, the Muslim League demanded "Divide and Quit India".  In July 1888, his wife Kasturba gave birth to their first surviving son, Harilal.  Winston Churchill caricatured Gandhi as a "cunning huckster" seeking selfish gain, an "aspiring dictator", and an "atavistic spokesman of a pagan Hinduism". The victim was a … The moral influence he had on the consciously thinking human being of the entire civilised world will probably be much more lasting than it seems in our time with its overestimation of brutal violent forces. , While Gandhi expressed mostly positive views of Islam, he did occasionally criticise Muslims. A picked column advanced from the crowd, waded the ditches and approached the barbed wire stockade... at a word of command, scores of native policemen rushed upon the advancing marchers and rained blows on their heads with their steel-shot lathis [long bamboo sticks]. They went down like ninepins. It may be noted later that he is called "Sant Sri Asaramji Bapu" by his followers. Wavell accused Gandhi of harbouring the single minded idea to "overthrow British rule and influence and to establish a Hindu raj", and called Gandhi a "malignant, malevolent, exceedingly shrewd" politician.  To Gandhi, states Parekh, both communism and capitalism were wrong, in part because both focused exclusively on a materialistic view of man, and because the former deified the state with unlimited power of violence, while the latter deified capital. However, Gandhi's empathy towards Islam, and his eager willingness to valorise peaceful Muslim social activists, was viewed by many Hindus as an appeasement of Muslims and later became a leading cause for his assassination at the hands of intolerant Hindu extremists.  Over 2.5 million Indians ignored Gandhi, volunteered and joined on the British side. " The Indian classics, especially the stories of Shravana and king Harishchandra, had a great impact on Gandhi in his childhood. He helped found the Natal Indian Congress in 1894, and through this organisation, he moulded the Indian community of South Africa into a unified political force. Gandhi exhorted Indian men and women, rich or poor, to spend time each day spinning khadi in support of the independence movement. Gandhi inquired about his pay for the work. In April 1945, Gandhi referenced being naked with several "women or girls" in a letter to Birla as part of the experiments. , Gandhi challenged Nehru and the modernisers in the late 1930s who called for rapid industrialisation on the Soviet model; Gandhi denounced that as dehumanising and contrary to the needs of the villages where the great majority of the people lived.  Some writers credit Gandhi's fasting and protests for stopping the religious riots and communal violence. Because lasting will only be the work of such statesmen who wake up and strengthen the moral power of their people through their example and educational works.  It was at Tolstoy Farm where Gandhi and Hermann Kallenbach systematically trained their disciples in the philosophy of nonviolence. Gokhale was a key leader of the Congress Party best known for his restraint and moderation, and his insistence on working inside the system. Allinson had been promoting newly available birth control methods, but Hills disapproved of these, believing they undermined public morality.  In 1921, Gandhi was the leader of the Indian National Congress.  Gandhi grew fond of Hinduism, and referred to the Bhagavad Gita as his spiritual dictionary and greatest single influence on his life. Gandhi ignored this, and on 4 September, he sailed from Bombay to London, with his brother seeing him off. , In 1925, Gandhi gave another reason to why he got involved in the Khilafat movement and the Middle East affairs between Britain and the Ottoman Empire.  In the process, he lost a year at school but was later allowed to make up by accelerating his studies. It has reduced us politically to serfdom." The Hindu nationalist groups objected and began confronting Gandhi for this one-sided practice, by shouting and demonstrating inside the Hindu temples, in the last years of his life. His method of non-violent Satyagraha could easily attract masses and it fitted in with the interests and sentiments of business groups, better-off people and dominant sections of peasantry, who did not want an uncontrolled and violent social revolution which could create losses for them.  According to the historian M. Naeem Qureshi, like the then Indian Muslim leaders who had combined religion and politics, Gandhi too imported his religion into his political strategy during the Khilafat movement. , Churchill's bitterness against Gandhi grew in the 1930s. The political base behind Gandhi had broken into factions. These ideas are evidenced in his pamphlets from the 1890s, in South Africa, where too he was popular among the Indian indentured workers. Before this initiative of Gandhi, communal disputes and religious riots between Hindus and Muslims were common in British India, such as the riots of 1917–18. Gandhi reiterated his stance that "the Jews seek to convert the Arab heart", and use "satyagraha in confronting the Arabs" in 1947. Although Gandhi wanted a total focus on the task of winning independence and not speculation about India's future, he did not restrain the Congress from adopting socialism as its goal.  The 2019 play Bharat Bhagya Vidhata, inspired by Pujya Gurudevshri Rakeshbhai and produced by Sangeet Natak Akademi and Shrimad Rajchandra Mission Dharampur takes a look at how Gandhi cultivated the values of truth and non-violence. He entered politics by forming the Natal Indian Congress. Among them was one of Gandhi's lieutenants, Jawaharlal Nehru.  Most of the ashes were immersed at the Sangam at Allahabad on 12 February 1948, but some were secretly taken away.  Gandhi's concept of satya as a civil movement, states Glyn Richards, are best understood in the context of the Hindu terminology of Dharma and Ṛta. , After his early release from prison for political crimes in 1924, over the second half of the 1920s, Gandhi continued to pursue swaraj.  Nehru used the assassination to consolidate the authority of the new Indian state.  Gandhi, a group of 20 Indians and black people of South Africa volunteered as a stretcher-bearer corps to treat wounded British soldiers and the opposite side of the war: Zulu victims.  He chose to protest and was allowed to board the train the next day. He did not disagree with the party's position but felt that if he resigned, his popularity with Indians would cease to stifle the party's membership, which actually varied, including communists, socialists, trade unionists, students, religious conservatives, and those with pro-business convictions, and that these various voices would get a chance to make themselves heard.  While many Hindu leaders championed a demand for immediate independence, Gandhi revised his own call to a one-year wait, instead of two.. , Gandhi discussed the persecution of the Jews in Germany and the emigration of Jews from Europe to Palestine through his lens of Satyagraha. Lanza del Vasto went to India in 1936 intending to live with Gandhi; he later returned to Europe to spread Gandhi's philosophy and founded the Community of the Ark in 1948 (modelled after Gandhi's ashrams). Gandhi took Gokhale's liberal approach based on British Whiggish traditions and transformed it to make it look Indian. , There are three temples in India dedicated to Gandhi. , According to Sean Scalmer, Gandhi in his final year of life was an ascetic, and his sickly skeletal figure was caricatured in Western media. His campaign was a failure. , In the 1940s, Gandhi pooled ideas with some Muslim leaders who sought religious harmony like him, and opposed the proposed partition of British India into India and Pakistan. British political leaders such as Lord Birkenhead and Winston Churchill announced opposition to "the appeasers of Gandhi", in their discussions with European diplomats who sympathised with Indian demands. , In 1910, Gandhi established, with the help of his friend Hermann Kallenbach, an idealistic community they named Tolstoy Farm near Johannesburg. Brown, Judith M. (2004). Bapu is a word for “father” in many Indian languages such as Gujarati and Marathi. Bapu would go for a walk each morning and evening. 16), and even is painted marching with him to make salt (although the historical record shows otherwise) in fifth-grader Sahil’s painting (Fig. He warned such a transfer would still be English rule, just without the Englishman.  The concept of nonviolence (ahimsa) has a long history in Indian religious thought, with it being considered the highest dharma (ethical value virtue), a precept to be observed towards all living beings (sarvbhuta), at all times (sarvada), in all respects (sarvatha), in action, words and thought. , Gandhi's ideas had a significant influence on 20th-century philosophy. However, he could not appreciate the bland vegetarian food offered by his landlady and was frequently hungry until he found one of London's few vegetarian restaurants. , At various occasions, Gandhi credited his orthodox Hindu mother, and his wife, for first lessons in satyagraha. He would later change this statement to "Truth is God". Dear Student, The year 1919 marked the entry of Mahatma Gandhi in the freedom struggle that changed the course of national movement spreading to new areas, incorporating new social groups and developing new modes of struggle.  The British government responded quickly to the Quit India speech, and within hours after Gandhi's speech arrested Gandhi and all the members of the Congress Working Committee. This legacy connects him to Nelson Mandela...in a sense Mandela completed what Gandhi started.". Later, Navajivan was also published in Hindi. " He urged Indians to Karo ya maro ("Do or die") in the cause of their rights and freedoms. Other than making vegetarian choices, he actively campaigned against dissection studies and experimentation on live animals (vivisection) in the name of science and medical studies. This was highlighted by the Salt March to Dandi from 12 March to 6 April, where, together with 78 volunteers, he marched 388 kilometres (241 mi) from Ahmedabad to Dandi, Gujarat to make salt himself, with the declared intention of breaking the salt laws. Gandhi's birthday, 2 October, is commemorated in India as Gandhi Jayanti, a national holiday, and worldwide as the International Day of Nonviolence. , In his autobiography, Gandhi wrote that he believed every Hindu child must learn Sanskrit because its historic and spiritual texts are in that language. , Time magazine named Gandhi the Man of the Year in 1930.  A Quaker mission in South Africa attempted to convert him to Christianity. Ben Kingsley portrayed him in Richard Attenborough's 1982 film Gandhi, which won the Academy Award for Best Picture. , Gandhi believed that swaraj not only can be attained with non-violence, it can be run with non-violence. Once Morari Bapu held 1008 simultaneous recitals of the Ramayana — at the conclusion he made Harijans (so-called untouchable caste) perform the aarti — a religious ceremony.  His countrymen retaliated the arrests by damaging or burning down hundreds of government owned railway stations, police stations, and cutting down telegraph wires. If we want to cultivate a true spirit of democracy, we cannot afford to be intolerant.  Veena Howard states Gandhi's views on brahmacharya and religious renunciation experiments were a method to confront women issues in his times. There were no hard feelings, with Hills proposing the toast at the LVS farewell dinner in honour of Gandhi's return to India. His views on women's rights were less liberal and more similar to puritan-Victorian expectations of women, states Jayawardena, than other Hindu leaders with him who supported economic independence and equal gender rights in all aspects.  The unfolding events, the massacre and the British response, led Gandhi to the belief that Indians will never get a fair equal treatment under British rulers, and he shifted his attention to Swaraj or self rule and political independence for India. , Gandhi's assassination dramatically changed the political landscape. , Gandhi credited Shrimad Rajchandra, a poet and Jain philosopher, as his influential counsellor. "Gandhi, Mohandas Karamchand [Mahatma Gandhi] (1869–1948)". At other times, he acknowledged that he knew little about Buddhism other than his reading of Edwin Arnold's book on it. I have nothing new to teach the world. He would put his hands on the shoulders of those either side. In 2000, a revised edition of the complete works sparked a controversy, as it contained a large number of errors and omissions. Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi was born on 2 October 1869 into an Gujarati Modh Bania family of the Vaishya varna in Porbandar (also known as Sudamapuri), a coastal town on the Kathiawar Peninsula and then part of the small princely state of Porbandar in the Kathiawar Agency of the Indian Empire. , Gandhi believed in the sarvodaya economic model, which literally means "welfare, upliftment of all". " Gandhi had a large Indian Muslim following, who he encouraged to join him in a mutual nonviolent jihad against the social oppression of their time.  The 1996 film The Making of the Mahatma documented Gandhi's time in South Africa and his transformation from an inexperienced barrister to recognised political leader.  Gandhi demanded that people stop all violence, stop all property destruction, and went on fast-to-death to pressure Indians to stop their rioting.  Though unable to halt the bill's passage, his campaign was successful in drawing attention to the grievances of Indians in South Africa. , Along with the book mentioned above, in 1908 Leo Tolstoy wrote A Letter to a Hindu, which said that only by using love as a weapon through passive resistance could the Indian people overthrow colonial rule.  All Indian-owned establishments in London remained closed in mourning as thousands of people from all faiths and denominations and Indians from all over Britain converged at India House in London. But I thought it was quite improper to exclude a man from a vegetarian society simply because he refused to regard puritan morals as one of the objects of the society, A motion to remove Allinson was raised, and was debated and voted on by the committee. , Gandhi championed animal rights in general. , Leader of the campaign for India's independence from British rule, "Gandhi" redirects here. "Gandhi in the Mind of America. , Several biographers have undertaken the task of describing Gandhi's life.  Gandhi was deeply influenced by his mother, an extremely pious lady who "would not think of taking her meals without her daily prayers... she would take the hardest vows and keep them without flinching. , Ambedkar's criticism of Gandhi continued to influence the Dalit movement past Gandhi's death.  He considered it a violence against animals, something that inflicted pain and suffering. ", Rudolph, Lloyd I. Assuming leadership of the Indian National Congress in 1921, Gandhi led nationwide campaigns for easing poverty, expanding women's rights, building religious and ethnic amity, ending untouchability, and above all for achieving Swaraj or self-rule.. , On 2 October 1869, Putlibai gave birth to her last child, Mohandas, in a dark, windowless ground-floor room of the Gandhi family residence in Porbandar city. Gandhi led Congress celebrated 26 January 1930 as India's Independence Day in Lahore. , Gandhi spent the day of independence not celebrating the end of the British rule but appealing for peace among his countrymen by fasting and spinning in Calcutta on 15 August 1947. ", In 1938, Gandhi stated that his "sympathies are all with the Jews. In Kheda, Vallabhbhai Patel represented the farmers in negotiations with the British, who suspended revenue collection and released all the prisoners.. In a shocking incident, a Satsang was organized for rape-convict Asaram Bapu in the Shahjahanpur District Jail on Tuesday. He found it humiliating, struggling to understand how some people can feel honour or superiority or pleasure in such inhumane practices. To both, according to Bhatt, removing poverty and unemployment were the objective, but the Gandhian economic and development approach preferred adapting technology and infrastructure to suit the local situation, in contrast to Nehru's large scale, socialised state owned enterprises. For five months, the administration refused but finally in end-May 1918, the Government gave way on important provisions and relaxed the conditions of payment of revenue tax until the famine ended.  For some of these experiments, Gandhi combined his own ideas with those found on diet in Indian yoga texts. During this period, his long time secretary Mahadev Desai died of a heart attack, his wife Kasturba died after 18 months' imprisonment on 22 February 1944; and Gandhi suffered a severe malaria attack. Another grandson, Kanu Ramdas Gandhi (the son of Gandhi's third son Ramdas), was found living in an old age home in Delhi despite having taught earlier in the United States.  Balkrishna Gokhale states that Gandhi was influenced by Hinduism and Jainism, and his studies of Sermon on the Mount of Christianity, Ruskin and Tolstoy. ", This page was last edited on 24 December 2020, at 09:23. The Act allowed the British government to treat civil disobedience participants as criminals and gave it the legal basis to arrest anyone for "preventive indefinite detention, incarceration without judicial review or any need for a trial".  Some of the vegetarians he met were members of the Theosophical Society, which had been founded in 1875 to further universal brotherhood, and which was devoted to the study of Buddhist and Hindu literature. Gandhi was involved in the final negotiations, but Stanley Wolpert states the "plan to carve up British India was never approved of or accepted by Gandhi". Satyagraha is also termed a "universal force", as it essentially "makes no distinction between kinsmen and strangers, young and old, man and woman, friend and foe. , Born and raised in a Hindu family in coastal Gujarat, western India, Gandhi trained in law at the Inner Temple, London, and was called to the bar at age 22 in June 1891. Gandhi's private secretary noted that "The question of the consistency between his creed of 'Ahimsa' (nonviolence) and his recruiting campaign was raised not only then but has been discussed ever since. If these gentlemen choose to occupy your homes, you will vacate them. As the war progressed, Gandhi intensified his demand for independence, calling for the British to Quit India in a 1942 speech in Mumbai. These views contrasted with those of Ambedkar. He brought an international reputation as a leading Indian nationalist, theorist and community organiser.  The British government ignored him and passed the law, stating it would not yield to threats. राम or, Hey Raam). More than half a million were killed in religious riots as 10 million to 12 million non-Muslims (Hindus and Sikhs mostly) migrated from Pakistan into India, and Muslims migrated from India into Pakistan, across the newly created borders of India, West Pakistan and East Pakistan. He was critical of Christian missionary efforts in British India, because they mixed medical or education assistance with demands that the beneficiary convert to Christianity. , In 1918, Kheda was hit by floods and famine and the peasantry was demanding relief from taxes. , The family's religious background was eclectic.  But during Quit India movement even many staunch Gandhians used 'violent means'. But Kavi's influence was undoubtedly deeper if only because I had come in closest personal touch with him. , Along with many other texts, Gandhi studied Bhagavad Gita while in South Africa. , Gandhi focused his attention on Indians while in South Africa. The government suppressed the RSS, the Muslim National Guards, and the Khaksars, with some 200,000 arrests.  The most profound influence on Gandhi were those from Hinduism, Christianity and Jainism, states Parekh, with his thoughts "in harmony with the classical Indian traditions, specially the Advaita or monistic tradition". , The British reluctantly agreed to grant independence to the people of the Indian subcontinent, but accepted Jinnah's proposal of partitioning the land into Pakistan and India. His methodology sought to treat all professions equal and pay everyone the same. , According to Guha, Nehru and his Congress colleagues called on Indians to honour Gandhi's memory and even more his ideals.  He was an average student, won some prizes, but was a shy and tongue tied student, with no interest in games; his only companions were books and school lessons. Jahnu Barua's Maine Gandhi Ko Nahin Mara (I did not kill Gandhi), places contemporary society as a backdrop with its vanishing memory of Gandhi's values as a metaphor for the senile forgetfulness of the protagonist of his 2005 film, writes Vinay Lal.  This campaign was not universally embraced by the Dalit community: Ambedkar and his allies felt Gandhi was being paternalistic and was undermining Dalit political rights. Gandhi criticised Western civilisation as one driven by "brute force and immorality", contrasting it with his categorisation of Indian civilisation as one driven by "soul force and morality". If they do not give you free passage out, you will allow yourselves, man, woman, and child, to be slaughtered, but you will refuse to owe allegiance to them. He took these back to India in 1915.  Gandhi agreed to actively recruit Indians for the war effort. Democracy meant settling disputes in a nonviolent manner; it required freedom of thought and expression. , Immediately upon arriving in South Africa, Gandhi faced discrimination because of his skin colour and heritage, like all people of colour. In his autobiography, he admits that they left an indelible impression on his mind. , The appeal of "Non-cooperation" grew, its social popularity drew participation from all strata of Indian society. , Archibald Wavell, the Viceroy and Governor-General of British India for three years through February 1947, had worked with Gandhi and Jinnah to find a common ground, before and after accepting Indian independence in principle. Gandhi summarised his beliefs first when he said "God is Truth". The British government stopped the London press from showing photographs of his emaciated body, because it would elicit sympathy. , Gandhi took leadership of the Congress in 1920 and began escalating demands until on 26 January 1930 the Indian National Congress declared the independence of India. Gandhi was arrested on 10 March 1922, tried for sedition, and sentenced to six years' imprisonment. , Gandhi's children and grandchildren live in India and other countries. The government quelled any opposition to its economic and social policies, despite these being contrary to Gandhi's ideas, by reconstructing Gandhi's image and ideals.  Historian R.B. Gandhi's brother Laxmidas, who was already a lawyer, cheered Gandhi's London studies plan and offered to support him. And gained organizational strength 51 ] in protest, Gandhi and the Congress for... Authority, despite his shyness and temperamental disinclination towards confrontation 359 ] spent. Deny the charges nor express any remorse letters almost every other Indian leaders Arthur Herman ``... An arm to fend off blows in parallel, Gandhi influenced important leaders and delegates abandoned Gandhi and his.... October 2 is celebrated as Gandhi Jayanti wife in February 1944 British, which literally ``. Medically certified to serve on the philosophical foundations of Advaita Vedanta Gandhi supported... Which literally means `` welfare, upliftment of all denominations issued by Reserve Bank of India App! Pacifist ideas and were inspired by Gandhi operated for less than complete non-violence to Indira Carr Gandhi... The peasantry was demanding relief from taxes was a prominent non-Indian recipient the point view. Poor or rich, is used in the philosophy of nonviolence designates the ideas of nationalism and anti-imperialism examples! [ 122 ] in the South African war against the British did not the! 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